1. Nature and Principles of Tort : Historical development of Laws of Torts and applicability in India. Basic foundation of Law of Torts, Meaning, Ingredients, Relevancy of Mens Rea & Malice, , Felonious & Foreign Tort, Constituents of Tortuous liability.
  2. Immunity from tortuous liability – Husband and wife relationship, married women and Act of State.
  3.  Justification – Inevitable accident, Act of God, Statutory Authority, Volenti-non fit injuria.
  4.  Vicarious liability – By relation and ratification – Doctrine of Course of employment, Common employment, Independent Contractor.
  5. Remedies & Damages : Judicial & Extra-judicial remedies Direct & consequential Cause, Remoteness test
  6.  Special Torts : (a) As to person – Assault, Battery, Mayhem & False imprisonment, Malicious Prosecution, Defamation, (b) As to Property: Trespass, Trespass ab-initio.
  7. Nuisance and Negligence.


  1. Definition, meaning, nature, classification, and value of Jurisprudence, Meaning of law, Relationship between law and Morality
  2.  Legal theories – Analytical Theory, American Realism, Natural Law theories, Pure theory of Law, Sociological theories, Historical School
  3.  Sources of Law – Legislation, Precedents and Custom
  4.  Administration of Justice- Meaning and various theories of punishment
  5.  Legal Right : Meaning, basis and elements of Legal Right, Relation between rights and duties, Kinds of Legal rights.
  6.  Ownership : Meaning and characteristics of ownership, Kinds of ownership
  7. Possession : Meaning, elements of possession, Kinds of Possession, Distinctions between ownership and Possession.
  8.  Personality : Meaning, Natural Person and Artificial Person, Legal Status of Animals, dead persons and unborn Persons, Theories of Corporate personality


  1. Historical Background; Nature of constitution, features of constitution.
  2. Formation, State (Art. 2, 3, 4), Citizenship (Art. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 of Citizenship Act)
  3. State (Art. 12), Pre-constitutional & Post Constitutional operation (Art. 13) Right to Equality (Art. 14 to Art. 18)
  4. Right to Freedom (Art. 19-22)
  5. Right against Exploitation (Art. 23-24), Right to Freedom of Religion (Art. 25- 28), Cultural & Minorities Rights (Art. 29-30)
  6. Overriding effect of Directive Principles on FRS (Art. 31, 31A, 31B, 31C), Constitutional Remedies (Act. 32) Judicial Review, Judicial Activism.
  7. Directive Principles of State Policy ; Relation between D.P.S.P & F.Rts, Difference between DPSP & F.Rts,
  8. Enforceability of DPSP through Judiciary, Conversion of DPSP to F.Rts. (Environment, Education & Forest), Fundament Duties enforceability.President : Qualification, election, removal (impeachment); & Powers comparative study with Governor of State Governor : qualification election, removal powers.
  9. Parliament : constitution, qualification for membership, duration; & Powers, Privileges & immunities of its members; Legislatures in state : Constitution, duration; qualification, powers, privileges and immunities of member of state legislature.
  10. Legislative Procedure : Rules of procedure to introduce a bill, passing of Bills, Definition of Money Bill, Special Procedure to Pass money Bill, Resolution of deadlock.
  11.  4Union Judiciary : Establishment & Constitution of Supreme Court, qualification, appointment, disqualification, removal of Judges; Power & Jurisdiction of S.C. State judiciary : Constitution, Powers & jurisdiction of High Courts; Appointment, qualification, disqualification, removal of judges of a high court, District Court, Judicial Independence.
  12. Legislative Relation : Art. 245 to 255.
  13. Liability of State : (Art. 299, 300), Right to Property (Art. 300A), Freedom of Trade, Commence & intercourse (Art. 302 to 308).
  14.  Service under the constitution : Doctrine of pleasure (Art. 310, 311), Union & State Commissions (Art. 315 – 319), Administrative Tribunal meaning & Scope. 8. Emergency : Proclaimation of emergency, effects (Art. 352-360), Constitutional amendments (Art. – 368), Doctrine of basic structure.


 Textual Hindu Law

  1.  Sources of Hindu Law,
  2. Hindu Joint Family System and Copercenary,
  3. General Principles of succession under the Dayabhaga and the Mitakshara systems,
  4. Women’s property and stridhan
  5.  Distinction between Dayabhaga and the Mitakshara systems and effect of modern statutes

Statutory Hindu Law

  1. Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
  2. Hindu Succession Act, 1956
  3. Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956
  4. Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956
  5. Special Marriage Act, 1954


  1. Concept and Background of Muslim Law
  2. Sources & Schools, Muslim Law as applied and interpreted in India
  3. Marriage, Dower and maintenance
  4. Dissolutions of Marriage
  5. Gift, Wills, Waqf and Administration of Estate
  6. Pre-emption
  7. Inheritance.


  1. Section- 2 Jurisdiction of Civil Courts Principles of Res. Judicata – Constructive res judicata as embodied in Explanation IV or Section II.
  2. Place of Suing – Section 15 to 21A Power of transfer and General power of transfer and withdrawal of suits (Section 22 to 25). Service of Summons to Defendants under different circumstances; Section 27 to 29 and order V. Execution of decrees and orders – Section 31 to 74 Temporary injunction (Order XXXIX).
  3. Suits by or against Govt. or Public Officer in the Official capacity (Secs. 79 to 81) Notice to the Govt. or Public Officer (Section 80) Interpleader Suits – Section 88 and order XXXV. Filling of a suit in respect of public Nuisance (Section 91).
  4. Appeals – from original decrees Second appeal when Sec.5 lies – Appeals from orders – Powers of appellate court When appeal lies to the Supreme Court (Section 96 to 112 and Orders XLI to XLIII).
  5. Review of Judgements (Section 114- Revision of Judgement (Section 115)
  6. Right to lodge a Caveat by a person claiming a right to appear before the court – Section 148A.
  7. Inherent power of court to make order for the ends of justice or to prevent abuse of the process of Court (Sec. 151) – Amendments of judgements, decrees and orders (Section 152) 8. Appeals by indigent persons – Suits in favour of paupers
  8. The Limitation Act 1963


Indian Penal Code 1860 (As Amended upto 2013)

  1. Chapter I – Introduction
  2. Chapter II – General Explanations
  3. Chapter IV – General Exceptions
  4. Chapter V – Abetment
  5. Chapter VA – Criminal Conspiracy
  6. Chapter VI – Offences Against the State
  7. Chapter VIII – Offences against the Public Tranquility
  8. Chapter XI – False Evidence and Offences against Public Justice  
  9. Chapter XVI – Offences Affecting Human body
  10. Chapter XVII – Offences against Property
  11. Chapter XX – Offences relating to Marriage
  12. Chapter XXI – Defamation
  13. Chapter XXII – Criminal Intimidation etc.


The Code of Criminal Procedure 1973

  1. Chapter I Preliminary
  2. Chapter II Constitution of Criminal Courts and Offices
  3. Chapter III Powers of Course
  4. Chapter V Arrest of Persons
  5. Chapter VI Processes to Compel Appearance
  6. Chapter VII Processes to Compel the Production of things
  7. Chapter VIII Security for keeping the peace and for good behavior
  8. Chapter IX Order for Maintenance of Wives, Children and Parents.
  9. Chapter X Maintenance of Public Order and Tranquility
  10. Chapter XI Preventive Action of the Police
  11. Chapter XII Information to the Police & their Powers to Investigate
  12. Chapter XIII Jurisdiction of the Criminal Courts in Inquiries and Trials
  13. Chapter XIV Conditions Requisite for initiation of proceedings
  14. Chapter XV Complain to Magistrates
  15. Chapter XVI Commencement of Proceedings before Magistrates
  16. Chapter XVII The Charge
  17. Chapter XVIII Trial before a Court of Session
  18. Chapter XIX Trial of warrant-cases by Magistrates
  19. Chapter XX Trial of Summons Cases by Magistrates
  20. Chapter XXI Summary Trials
  21. Chapter XXIV General Provisions as to Inquiries and Trials
  22. Chapter XXIX Appeals
  23. Chapter XXX Reference and Revision
  24. Chapter XXXI Transfer of Criminal Cases
  25. Chapter XXXIII Provisions as to Bail and Bonds
  26. Chapter XXXV Irregular Proceedings
  27. Chapter XXXVI Limitation for Taking Cognizance of Certain Offences


The Indian Evidence Act 1872

  1. Preliminary
  2. Relevancy of Facts
  3. Facts which need not be proved
  4. Oral and Documentary Evidence
  5. Exclusion of Oral or Documentary Evidence
  6. Burden of Proof
  7. Estoppel
  8. Witnesses and Examination of Witnesses
  9. Improper Admission and Rejection of Evidence


  1. Nature and Scope including Definition of Administrative Law.
  2. Classification of Administrative Actions.
  3. Subordinate Legislations – Types, Control and reasons of its growth.
  4. Norms of Natural Justice – Rule against bias, Right to be heard and Reasoned decisions.
  5. Ombudsman – Lokpal and Lokayuktas
  6. Public Undertakings – its types and control and reasons of their growth.
  7. Judicial Control of Administrative Actions – Writs, Special Leave to Appeal, Statutory control and equitable remedies; Judicial Review and P.I.L. 8. Administrative Tribunals


  1. Introduction to Human Rights
  2. Philosophy, History and Development of Human Rights
  3. International Human Rights Laws – (a) Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948. (b) International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights – 1966. (c) International Covenant on Economic, Social And Cultural Rights – 1966. (d) Two Protocols of 1966 & 1989
  4. The Protection of Human Rights Act 1993
  5. Human Right Provisions in the Indian Constitution
  6. Role of Judiciary, Media & NGOs in the protection of Human Rights in India
  7. Humanitarian Law – Concept and Sources.


Industrial Disputes Act  

  1. Object of the Act.
  2. Definition of Industry and Industrial Dispute, Appropriate Govt. Average pay, Award, Controlled Industry, Employer, layoff, Lockout, strike etc. workmen.
  3. Procedure for the settlement of dispute and Authorities under the Act. References of dispute, voluntary references to arbitration, Awards and settlement.
  4. Strike and Lock out – Prohibition, illegality penalties.
  5. Lay off, Retrenchment of workers, Transfer and closing down of undertaking.
  6. Miscellaneous – Change of condition of service, unfair labour practices, Protected workman, Representation of parties, Recovery of money due from employers.

 Trade Unions Act

  1. Scope and the object of the Act.
  2. Definitions : Trade Union, Trade dispute, Registrar, workmen etc.
  3. Registration of the Trade Union.
  4. Rights and privileges of Registered Trade Union, dissolution etc.
  5. Recognition.
  6. Collective bargaining and trade union.
  7. Unfair labour practices, Penalities and miscellaneous

The Factories Act

  1. Object of the Act.
  2. Definitions : Sec. 2 of the Act.
  3. Approval and Licensing.
  4. Powers and functions of the Inspecting staff i.e. Inspector and certifying surgeon.
  5. Provisions of Health, Safety and Welfare measures.
  6. Working conditions of Adult, Adolescent and Child workers including women.
  7. Annual leave with wages.

The Workmen’s Compensation Act,1923 / The Employee’s Compensation Act,2010

  1. Scope and objective of the Act including definitions under Sec. 2 of the Act.
  2. Liability and defence against workmen’s compensation.
  3. Amount and distribution of compensation.
  4. Notice and claim of compensation, requirement under fatal accident.
  5. Liability of the master for the act of third party.
  6. Commissioner : Appointment, Powers, reference, settlement of dispute.
  7. Registration of agreement and effect of non-registration.
  8. Appeals, recovery etc.

The Minimum Wages Act,1948

  1. Scope and object of the Act (including definitions, concept of fair wage and living wage).
  2. Fixation and revision of minimum wage.
  3. Enforcement of the Act.


  1. General Principles; Definitions of Insurance
  2. Essential Elements : Insurable Interest; Materiality of Facts
  3. Life Insurance
  4. Fire Insurance
  5. Marine Insurance
  6. Liability Insurance
  7. The Insurance Act, 1938
  8. The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authorities Act, 1999.


  1. Fundamental basis of the Law of Contract
  2. Formation of Contract and the Fundamental rules relating to the agreement with special reference to Indian and English Law
  3. Essential conditions of a contract with special reference to Indian and English Law , (Including chapters on minor, consideration free consent and vitating factors; void, Illegal agreement, voidable contract etc., with detailed studies on general and specific rules
  4. Contingent Contract
  5. Discharge of Contract . The chapter includes rules of performance, quasi contracts, doctrine of frustration, breach of contract and remedies thereof, etc.


  1. Sale of Goods Act, 1930
  2. Indian Partnership Act, 1932
  3. Indian Contract Act relating to Specific Contracts, Indemnity, Guarantee, Pledge, Bailment and Agency.

Intellectual Property Right



  1. Concept of Company and history of company Legislations in India.
  2. Procedure relating to formation of a Company
  3. Finance of Company
  4. Management of Company affairs.
  5. Majority rule
  6. Control of Company affairs
  7. Procedure relating to winding up of a Company
  8. Miscellaneous provisions


 Transfer of Property Act, 1882

  1. Preliminary
  2. Transfers of Property by Act of Parties
  3. Sales of Immovable Property
  4. Mortgages of Immovable Property
  5. Leases of Immovable property
  6. Gifts
  7. Transfers of Actionable Claims

The Indian Easements Act, 1882 ( Sections – 4-19, 37-51,52-64)


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